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Insurance Claim & Roofing Estimate in Bloomington, IL

Before a Roofing Estimate in Bloomington, Illinois – Learn Some Terms

Learn our Lingo: Terms We Use on Roofing Estimates in Bloomington-Normal

Getting a roofing estimate in Bloomington, Illinois is not rocket science nor brain surgery. The roofing estimate and inspection process can be confusing if you have no experience with roofs. Many customers will never replace an old roof or even install a new roof. Some will only do it once and most will only do it a few times in their life (every 10-20 years). So, our team has put together a guide to help you navigate this daunting new process.

Asphalt Shingle Roofing in Bloomington-Normal, Illinois

All of the following terms come from the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association’s Residential Asphalt Roofing Manual. Our preferred roofing manufacturer, CertainTeed, has included additional terms and definitions for your reference. In this glossary, we are sorting each term alphabetically.



Algae Discoloration

A type of roof discoloration caused by algae. Commonly, but inaccurately, called fungus growth. Usually it is dark brown to black in color.

Algae Resistant Shingles

Shingles which are coated with copper granules on the weather side to prevent the formation of algae and the resultant discoloration.

Algicidal Treatment

A method of cleaning dis-colored shingles with a bleach mixture to lighten the discoloration caused by algae formation.


American Plywood Association.


Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association. (301)348-2002.


A bituminous waterproofing agent ap-plied to roofing materials during manufacture.

Asphalt Felt

See underlayment.

Asphalt Roofing Cement

An asphalt-based cement, containing solvent, used to bond roofing materials. Also known as asphalt plastic cement, flashing cement, muck, bull or mastic.


American Society for Testing and Materials. A voluntary organization concerned with development of consensus standards, testing procedures and product specifications.



Back Surfacing

Fine mineral matter applied to the back side of shingles, keeping them from sticking together when packaged in the bundles.

Base Flashing

The portion of the flashing attached to or resting on the deck to direct the flow of water onto the roof covering.

Butt edge

The lower edge of the shingle tabs


Parallel strips of wood to which roof tiles are fastened.


Raised areas or bubbles that may appear on the surface of asphalt roofing after installation.


A condition in which shingles flutter or flap up and down with the wind, tear, and finally blow off the roof entirely.


The formation of wrinkles or furrows across a shingle or shingles.


A package of shingles. There are typically three  or four in a square.



Cap flashing

The portion of the flashing attached to a vertical surface to prevent water from migrating behind the base flashing.


To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt roofing cement, or the material used to fill the joint.

Certificate of Compliance

A certificate indicating that shingles meet their appropriate standards.

Chalk Line

A line made on the roof by snapping a taut string or cord dusted with chalk. Used for alignment purposes.

Class “A”

The highest fire-resistance rating for roofing as per ASTM E 108. Indicates roofing is able to withstand severe exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.

Class “B”

Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing materials are able to withstand moderate exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building. (Not currently available for any asphalt shingle.)

Class “C”

Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing materials are able to withstand light exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.

Closed-Cut Valley

A method of valley treatment in which shingles from one side of the valley extend across the valley, while shingles from the other side are trimmed 2″ from the valley centerline. The valley flashing is not exposed.

Coating Asphalt

A layer of asphalt applied to the base reinforcement material into which granules or other surfacing is embedded.


Pre-formed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening. Also called a Vent sleeve.

Color Code Numbers

Number indicating the color are on each bundle of CertainTeed shingles. Color code number must match.

Color Variation

Slight differences in shingle appearance which may be due to variations in normal manufacturing color blends or the mixing of color blends during shingle application.

COM-PLY Panels

Composite panels made of wood veneer on the face and back, with an inside core of compressed wood strands.


The change of water from vapor to liquid when warm, moisture-laden air comes in contact with a cold surface.

Counter Flashing

See Cap flashing.


A horizontal row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.


A peaked saddle construction at the back of a chimney to prevent accumulation of snow and ice and to deflect water around the chimney.


The open portions of a strip shingle between the tabs



Date Codes

Date of manufacture printed on bundles. CertainTeed has eliminated most date codes because it is able to closely control the color in production runs.


The surface, installed over the supporting framing members, to which the roofing is applied.

Diagonal method

Roofing application method in which shingles are applied diagonally up the roof.


A framed window unit projecting through the sloping plane of a roof (Figure Gl-2).

Double coverage

Application of asphalt roofing such that the lapped portion is at least 2″ wider than the exposed portion, resulting in two layers of roofing material over the deck.


A pipe for draining water from roof gutters. Also called a Leader.

Drip edge

A corrosion-resistant, non-staining material used along the eaves and rakes to allow water run-off to drip clear of underlying construction.




The horizontal, lower edge of a sloped roof .

Eaves flashing

Additional layer of roofing material applied at the eaves to help prevent damage from water back-up.


The portion of the roofing exposed to the weather after installation, usually expressed in inches .

Exposure 1 Grade Plywood

Type of plywood approved by the American Plywood Association for exterior use.



Feathering strips

Tapered wood filler strips placed along the butts of old wood shingles to create a level surface when reroofing over existing wood shingle roofs. Also called Horsefeathers.


Organic fiber mat impregnated with asphalt and used as an underlayment. See Underlayment. See Organic felt.

Fiber glass mat

A reinforcing material for asphalt roofing manufactured from glass fibers.

Fiber Glass Shingles

Asphalt shingles made with a fiber glass mat.


See Mineral stabilizers.


Pieces of metal or roll roofing used to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection or projection in a roof, such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining walls, dormers and valleys.

Flashing cement

See Asphalt roofing cement.

FRT Plywood

Fire Retardant Treated plywood.

Fungus stain

See Algae discoloration.




The upper portion of a sidewall that comes to a triangular point at the ridge of a sloping roof.

Gable roof

A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each side of the ridge. Contains a gable at each end.

Gambrel roof

A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Contains a gable at each end.


Ceramic-coated, colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.


The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts.



Head lap

According to ASTM it is the shortest distance from the butt edge of an overlapping shingle to the upper edge of the shingle two courses below it. It is the “triple coverage” portion of the strip shingle system (designed to be minimum 2″ in length)

NOTE: In CertainTeed jargon, head lap refers to the entire upper portion of a shingle covered by the succeeding course after installation – about 7″ for 12″ x 36″ strip shingles.

Heavyweight Dimensional Shingles

Sometimes called architectural shingles, these shingles combine a rough dimensional look with attractive natural color blends. Typical weight: 265-350 lb./sq.


The inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Runs from the ridge to the eaves.

Hip roof

A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides. Contains no gables .

Hip shingles

Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Sometimes called “hip and ridge” shingles.

Homasote® Roofing Decking

High density wood fiber board.


See Feathering strips.

HUD Ventilation Standard

Minimum standard requires one square foot of net free ventilation area for every 150 square feet of attic floor space. However if half of the open ventilation area is in the upper portion of the roof and half is in the lower area, the standard changes to one square foot of net free ventilation for every 300 square feet of attic floor space.



Ice dam

Condition formed by the thawing and refreezing of melted snow, especially at the lower roof edge on the roof overhang and in gutters. Can cause water to pond and flow up and under shingles, causing leaks.



Laminated shingles

Strip shingles containing more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. Also called three-dimensional shingles or architectural


To cover the surface of one shingle or roll with another.


See Downspout.

LOADMASTER® Nailable Double Board Assembly

Trademarked roof decking composed of a double layer of mineral board placed over a rigid insulation board (optional), and fastened to a steel deck.

Low Budget Shingles

A class of shingles that can cause problems. They might have coloring that does not match from bundle to bundle, shingle lengths out of spec, or weak fiber glass mats. Such defects often lead to roofing difficulties.

Low-slope application

Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between 2″ and 4″ per foot.



Mansard Roof

A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the upper, often approaching vertical. Contains no gables.


See Asphalt roofing cement.

Mid-Weight Dimensional Shingles

Shadow lines and color blends give these shingles a more interesting appearance than common three-tab shingles. Typical weight: 235-265 lbs./sq.

Mineral stabilizers

Sometimes called Filler. Finely ground limestone, slate, trap-rock or other inert materials added to asphalt coatings for durability and increased resistance to fire and weathering.




A method of reroofing with new asphalt shingles over old shingles in which the top edge of the new shingle is butted against the bottom edge of the existing shingle tab.

No-cutout shingles

Shingles consisting of a single, solid tab with no cutouts.

Non-veneer panel

Any wood-based panel that does not contain veneered layers, such as oriented strand board (OSB) or wafer-board.



Open valley

Method of valley construction in which shingles on both sides of the valley are trimmed along a chalk line snapped on each side of the valley. Shingles do not extend across the valley. Valley flashing is exposed.


Non-veneer oriented strand board.


The portion of the roof structure that extends beyond  the exterior walls of a building.

Overlay Shingle

A one-piece base shingle to which overlay pads, consisting of an additional layer of asphalt and granules, are applied in random patterns to simulate two-piece laminated shingles.

Oxalic Acid

A diluted water solution of oxalic acid is used to reduce rust stains.




Wooden platforms used for storing and shipping bundles of shingles.


The formation of various geometric designs or patterns on the roof resulting from overlay- or laminated tab-type shingles applied incorrectly or from incorrect color blends.

Plastic cement

See Asphalt roofing cement.




Roofing application method in which shingle courses are applied vertically up the roof.


The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall plate.


The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall.

Release tape

A plastic strip that is applied to the back of self-sealing shingles. This strip prevents the shingles from sticking together in the bundles, and normally should not be removed for application.


The uppermost, horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.

Ridge shingles

Shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Sometimes called “hip and ridge” shingles.


Basic tool for tearing off old shingles. Also called the ripping shovel, it is a long handle connected at a steep angle to a flat blade with a serrated leading edge.


The vertical distance from the eaves line to the ridge.

Roll roofing

Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form.


The horizontal distance from the eaves to a point directly under the ridge. One-half the span.



Saturated felt

An asphalt-impregnated felt used as an underlayment between the deck and the roofing material.


Damage to the shingle surface, usually the granules or top coating layer, caused by foot traffic or by placing objects on newly installed shingles.

Sealant Adhesive

Applied to the face or back of shingles to hold them down in severe wind conditions.

Self-sealing shingles

Shingles containing factory-applied strips of self-sealing adhesive.

Self-sealing strip

Factory-applied adhesive that bonds shingle courses together when exposed to the heat of the sun after application.


Slight differences in shingle color that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations. See Color variation. See Patterning.


Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material.

Shed roof

A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.


Wrappings for workers shoes that prevent scuffing of  shingles.

Sight Card

Cardboard geometrical shape used to determine roof slope from the ground.

Single coverage

Asphalt roofing that provides one layer of roofing material over the deck.

Sit-Up on

Carpet or foam rubber pieces that roofers kneel or sit on while working to avoid scuffing shingles in hot weather.


The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in inches (or feet). Sometimes expressed as “pitch” in degrees of an angle


The finished underside of eaves.

Soffit Vents

Vents located under the eaves provide air intake. They should be used together with other higher elevation vents.

Soil stack

A vent pipe that penetrates the roof.


A unit of roof measurement equaling 100 square feet of roof area.

Square tab shingles

Shingles on which tabs are all the same size and exposure.

Stabilized Asphalt Coating

A tough asphalt material used to coat the impregnated felt of the asphalt shingle. Also used as the only waterproofing in a fiberglass shingle.

Standard-slope application

Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between 4″ and 21″ per foot.

Starter strip

Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provides protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles. It also provides for sealing down of tabs of the first course of self-sealing shingles.

Steep-slope application

Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes greater than 21″ per foot.

Step flashing

Base flashing application method used where a vertical surface meets a sloping roof plane. Utilizes multiple pieces of flashing material


The process of inserting spacers between deck panels before installation in order to allow them to reach a more natural moisture content and dimension.

Strip shingles

Asphalt shingles that are approximately three times as long as they are wide

Super Heavy-Weight

A top-of-the-line asphalt roofing shingle product exclusive to CertainTeed which is constructed of two full-size base shingles, and may also have a massive weather tab.




A unique, top-of-the-line asphalt shingle product which is constructed using a patented Tri-Laminate™ design process.


The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts.

Tab cement

An asphalt-based cement used to adhere tabs of strip shingles to the course below. A type of asphalt roofing cement often supplied in tubes.

Tear Resistance

The industry-accepted method for comparing shingle toughness is the ASTM D3462 performance standard for fiber glass shingles. All of CertainTeed’s shingles meet the tear resistance requirements of ASTM D3462.


A shingle distortion that may arise when a new roof is applied over an uneven surface.




Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.

UL label

Label displayed on packaging to indicate the level of fire and/or wind resistance of asphalt roofing, and whether shingles meet certain ASTM standards.


Asphalt-impregnated felt used beneath roofing to provide additional protection for the deck.




The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes .

Vapor retarder

Any material used to prevent the passage of water vapor.


1) Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck, such as a pipe or stack. 2) Any device installed on the roof, gable or soffit for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.

Vent-Top Thermocal®

This is a nail base roof insulation with 3⁄16″ venting air space and an APA-rated 7⁄16″ OSB sheathing layer above.



Waterproofing shingle underlayment

A special self-adhering waterproofing shingle underlayment designed to protect against water infiltration due to ice dams or wind-driven rain.

Woven valley

Method of valley construction in which shingles from both sides of the valley extend across the valley and are woven together by overlapping alternate courses as they are applied. The valley flashing is not exposed.